Epigenetic mechanisms involve processes such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications ."
Epigenetics is the study of heritable modifications in gene activity that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms involve DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, and microRNAs giving rise to changes in gene expression. For years, studies on human diseases have been focused on genetic, mecha-
nisms but currently new research is directed towards investigating epigenetic modifications and new tools are being developed to study such alterations. Elucidating the mechanisms that control these epigenetic modifications is the challenge that will lead us to understand the development of different human diseases and to redesign new therapeutic strategies.